When i open Firefox i see SystemD Coredump errors in journal

Right after a fresh system start and when i open Firefox, i see alot error messages in the Journal.

Should i worry about this errors? Is there a way to fix this?

journalctl -p 3 -xb:

Aug 01 10:45:40 koboldx-z170 systemd-coredump[1750]: [🡕] Process 1743 (firefox) of user 1000 dumped core.
                                                     Module /usr/lib/firefox/liblgpllibs.so with build-id 081553b68087ea2aaaeff0f256cd9e46d7edf667
                                                     Module linux-vdso.so.1 with build-id 125b0285aa529b1b1396ff79a856cc580f53371b
                                                     Module libGLX.so.0 with build-id 02bd4ac6acc4da9288c543ea1a0cdaa70c5e151a
                                                     Module libGLdispatch.so.0 with build-id de981c020bd9dbdc159b11f4a2a541310cc3b8d5
                                                     Module libvdpau.so.1 with build-id fccd021ff13c37ebf7144d184a3250624e086f52
                                                     Module libGL.so.1 with build-id b915a2e48be6c9fd3cc6f9f4c7aab1f7aeed8a4c
                                                     Module nvidia_drv_video.so with build-id 8976d88c463676c8a7a27a4fa06ab51a4f428200
                                                     Module libdrm.so.2 with build-id 39847bc84bc769f632f8f599a62fdcc98c9270cd
                                                     Module libva.so.2 with build-id 86d5ae6b358ba79962131649d99e42e1ba669501
                                                     Module libva-drm.so.2 with build-id 58df7fa92e899fee0c784db7a9fc68bb107156b6
                                                     Module libxcb-glx.so.0 with build-id 71d5b6691f53a235696da49ffa2178d643ecc228
                                                     Module librt.so.1 with build-id f696f0167950c759f9ea43d46167fae35d43dded
                                                     Module libplds4.so with build-id 2b49ec2f43d2e5fc2e56f35bcd094968f9bf36e6
                                                     Module libX11-xcb.so.1 with build-id f92352eae0a30aea89d11beb22367fa985288925
                                                     Module libdbus-glib-1.so.2 with build-id 9b483ffff76251ff057e007a0b960bff84ce34a8
                                                     Module libnssutil3.so with build-id 36c34a5ab8de68047e7886fe56da7ccf6722f465
                                                     Module libnss3.so with build-id 87abb242025e6e243d6974b3a9da26166884533a
                                                     Module libsmime3.so with build-id e80b1eacbb0979a1355fd008847c6eef060e83e3
                                                     Module libssl3.so with build-id 94040772bf0029a13562ab6314237dc26ea29a60
                                                     Module libplc4.so with build-id 2f3f90e73b1f4fc3424689615d6d32f7427bb783
                                                     Module libasound.so.2 with build-id aefb908044b1b408df406f1a9bab9bba486c0e94
                                                     Module libxul.so with build-id df5df7cca77bbb20d8d023735d6a2e3007704f96
                                                     Module libmozwayland.so with build-id 3f89e1e6b103635baf1a3f7616088efc0a6cde48
                                                     Module libgpg-error.so.0 with build-id 4738b8a9478177c202cccd64e0eb65d3dea2bfae
                                                     Module liblz4.so.1 with build-id e63600ab23b2f6997f42fac2fa56e1f02ce159a1
                                                     Module libgcrypt.so.20 with build-id 8bf3cb884124273640de797a3e77d86c98434ea4
                                                     Module libcap.so.2 with build-id 1f87347b85b55db2f75a2ecea5cb45d846dc7093
                                                     Module libbrotlicommon.so.1 with build-id acfd597a977c8087bb6184383daae2e828a9ce42
                                                     Module libicudata.so.71 with build-id 4fef196388e678deb881978139e125e20ee2d94d
                                                     Module libsystemd.so.0 with build-id 761a39da56f185d6f1ef6f7bb95a3299789eb3e2
                                                     Module liblzma.so.5 with build-id 28b40c7af8098a66af6ee093b6986b91cad7694d
                                                     Module libzstd.so.1 with build-id ab54c2881f53ab314e134f3e08c76d504376dd5d
                                                     Module libXdmcp.so.6 with build-id d864159ab0008415667db8d5f251696d75c90df2
                                                     Module libXau.so.6 with build-id 60db1eac70f819bea9d4c366603c1583067510b4
                                                     Module libbrotlidec.so.1 with build-id 66c54e9301f7e102ecc1d88547e5f0e8a056fe22
                                                     Module libbz2.so.1.0 with build-id 919597c477c9b2cb9cdbb7745ed6494ac0e6da60
                                                     Module libdatrie.so.1 with build-id 6fe3b6ece2c8e7d11869fa051375128d8f808f58
                                                     Module libblkid.so.1 with build-id 140694a62d8d4d07c6c320a501f948dd1b389d73
                                                     Module libpthread.so.0 with build-id 95ae4f30a6f12ccbff645d30f8e1a3ee23ec7d36
                                                     Module libxml2.so.2 with build-id 8cdf00fa954d9a27f2f184c4d354cb14677446ac
                                                     Module libjson-glib-1.0.so.0 with build-id 58decebd2c409d59b07f926ae4c513281918bc4d
                                                     Module libsqlite3.so.0 with build-id 90fb9a043b4a51db25530e16cd543c4b2a9319a9
                                                     Module libicui18n.so.71 with build-id 6fd5c97fd2808ee29958bf809656d5885e7e8963
                                                     Module libicuuc.so.71 with build-id 633fdc0c5385d916571f6140e7a978ad0630ef55
                                                     Module libstemmer.so.0 with build-id 013b48e71279a5ec55e3021fc0bd8fb10a08bae5
                                                     Module libatspi.so.0 with build-id 87bca381f073faea3b0ffd1ab06f5f8f204e24cf
                                                     Module libdbus-1.so.3 with build-id 7f4b16b4b407cbae2d7118d6f99610e29a18a56a
                                                     Module libtiff.so.5 with build-id 31895d2bd133f34f0cdc2d4ac855ed838ec927b6
                                                     Module libjpeg.so.8 with build-id 8e6d3f3e8f438912b561c43b6e7f66e6e5e097d0
                                                     Module libexpat.so.1 with build-id 113bb5a3e9ad856801bfcfc029102c9bdc13d67e
                                                     Module libpixman-1.so.0 with build-id d2170a3ac106c2a68597bf7910ab04b1cdd69c14
                                                     Module libxcb-shm.so.0 with build-id 828fec4d856e2710e732ea8d92c3f250c807b1c2
                                                     Module libxcb-render.so.0 with build-id b1ca498d665807ab0ccdafbe8070853efd058173
                                                     Module libxcb.so.1 with build-id 13d677412a71468381b11092915d231f664d18d3
                                                     Module libXrender.so.1 with build-id 42e386d2acf3cde61081959d9671ca74acfb3edc

inxi --admin --verbosity=7 --filter --no-host --width:

erl: warning: Setting locale failed.
perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
        LANGUAGE = "",
        LC_ALL = (unset),
        LC_ADDRESS = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_NAME = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_MONETARY = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_PAPER = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_IDENTIFICATION = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_TELEPHONE = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_MEASUREMENT = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_TIME = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LC_NUMERIC = "de_DE.UTF-8",
        LANG = "en_DE.UTF-8"
    are supported and installed on your system.
perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
  Kernel: 5.15.57-2-MANJARO arch: x86_64 bits: 64 compiler: gcc v: 12.1.0
    parameters: BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-5.15-x86_64
    root=UUID=eb235aa7-d461-413d-800e-ea57385703fb rw quiet apparmor=1
    security=apparmor resume=UUID=a44dd3c4-f5f1-4587-8934-6f7413d28d4f
  Desktop: KDE Plasma v: 5.24.6 tk: Qt v: 5.15.5 wm: kwin_x11 vt: 1 dm: SDDM
    Distro: Manjaro Linux base: Arch Linux
  Type: Desktop System: Gigabyte product: Z170X-UD3 v: N/A
    serial: <superuser required>
  Mobo: Gigabyte model: Z170X-UD3-CF v: x.x serial: <superuser required>
    UEFI-[Legacy]: American Megatrends v: F23d date: 12/01/2017
  RAM: total: 15.58 GiB used: 1.84 GiB (11.8%)
  RAM Report: permissions: Unable to run dmidecode. Root privileges
  Info: model: Intel Core i7-6700K bits: 64 type: MT MCP arch: Skylake-S
    gen: core 6 built: 2015 process: Intel 14nm family: 6 model-id: 0x5E (94)
    stepping: 3 microcode: 0xF0
  Topology: cpus: 1x cores: 4 tpc: 2 threads: 8 smt: enabled cache:
    L1: 256 KiB desc: d-4x32 KiB; i-4x32 KiB L2: 1024 KiB desc: 4x256 KiB
    L3: 8 MiB desc: 1x8 MiB
  Speed (MHz): avg: 4442 high: 4501 min/max: 800/4700 scaling:
    driver: intel_pstate governor: performance cores: 1: 4501 2: 4269 3: 4289
    4: 4489 5: 4494 6: 4500 7: 4501 8: 4500 bogomips: 64026
  Flags: 3dnowprefetch abm acpi adx aes aperfmperf apic arat
    arch_capabilities arch_perfmon art avx avx2 bmi1 bmi2 bts clflush
    clflushopt cmov constant_tsc cpuid cpuid_fault cx16 cx8 de ds_cpl dtes64
    dtherm dts ept ept_ad erms est f16c flexpriority flush_l1d fma fpu
    fsgsbase fxsr ht hwp hwp_act_window hwp_epp hwp_notify ibpb ibrs ida
    intel_pt invpcid invpcid_single lahf_lm lm mca mce md_clear mmx monitor
    movbe mpx msr mtrr nonstop_tsc nopl nx pae pat pbe pcid pclmulqdq pdcm
    pdpe1gb pebs pge pln pni popcnt pse pse36 pti pts rdrand rdseed rdtscp
    rep_good sdbg sep smap smep ss ssbd sse sse2 sse4_1 sse4_2 ssse3 stibp
    syscall tm tm2 tpr_shadow tsc tsc_adjust tsc_deadline_timer vme vmx vnmi
    vpid x2apic xgetbv1 xsave xsavec xsaveopt xsaves xtopology xtpr
  Type: itlb_multihit status: KVM: VMX disabled
  Type: l1tf mitigation: PTE Inversion; VMX: conditional cache flushes, SMT
  Type: mds mitigation: Clear CPU buffers; SMT vulnerable
  Type: meltdown mitigation: PTI
  Type: mmio_stale_data mitigation: Clear CPU buffers; SMT vulnerable
  Type: retbleed mitigation: IBRS
  Type: spec_store_bypass mitigation: Speculative Store Bypass disabled via
    prctl and seccomp
  Type: spectre_v1 mitigation: usercopy/swapgs barriers and __user pointer
  Type: spectre_v2 mitigation: IBRS, IBPB: conditional, RSB filling
  Type: srbds mitigation: Microcode
  Type: tsx_async_abort mitigation: TSX disabled
  Device-1: NVIDIA TU102 [GeForce RTX 2080 Ti Rev. A] vendor: Micro-Star MSI
    driver: nvidia v: 515.57 alternate: nouveau,nvidia_drm non-free: 515.xx+
    status: current (as of 2022-07) arch: Turing code: TUxxx
    process: TSMC 12nm built: 2018-22 pcie: gen: 1 speed: 2.5 GT/s lanes: 16
    link-max: gen: 3 speed: 8 GT/s bus-ID: 01:00.0 chip-ID: 10de:1e07
    class-ID: 0300
  Display: x11 server: X.Org v: 21.1.4 compositor: kwin_x11 driver: X:
    loaded: nvidia gpu: nvidia display-ID: :0 screens: 1
  Screen-1: 0 s-res: 2560x1440 s-dpi: 122 s-size: 532x302mm (20.94x11.89")
    s-diag: 612mm (24.08")
  Monitor-1: DP-4 res: 2560x1440 dpi: 123 size: 527x296mm (20.75x11.65")
    diag: 604mm (23.8") modes: N/A
  OpenGL: renderer: NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti/PCIe/SSE2 v: 4.6.0 NVIDIA
    515.57 direct render: Yes
  Device-1: Intel 100 Series/C230 Series Family HD Audio vendor: Gigabyte
    driver: snd_hda_intel v: kernel bus-ID: 00:1f.3 chip-ID: 8086:a170
    class-ID: 0403
  Device-2: NVIDIA TU102 High Definition Audio vendor: Micro-Star MSI
    driver: snd_hda_intel v: kernel pcie: gen: 3 speed: 8 GT/s lanes: 16
    bus-ID: 01:00.1 chip-ID: 10de:10f7 class-ID: 0403
  Device-3: Creative Labs Sound Core3D [Sound Blaster Recon3D / Z-Series]
    driver: snd_hda_intel v: kernel pcie: gen: 1 speed: 2.5 GT/s lanes: 1
    bus-ID: 0b:00.0 chip-ID: 1102:0012 class-ID: 0403
  Sound Server-1: ALSA v: k5.15.57-2-MANJARO running: yes
  Sound Server-2: JACK v: 1.9.21 running: no
  Sound Server-3: PulseAudio v: 16.1 running: yes
  Sound Server-4: PipeWire v: 0.3.56 running: yes
  Device-1: Intel Ethernet I219-V vendor: Gigabyte driver: e1000e v: kernel
    port: N/A bus-ID: 00:1f.6 chip-ID: 8086:15b8 class-ID: 0200
  IF: enp0s31f6 state: up speed: 1000 Mbps duplex: full mac: <filter>
  IP v4: <filter> type: dynamic noprefixroute scope: global
    broadcast: <filter>
  IP v6: <filter> type: noprefixroute scope: link
  WAN IP: <filter>
  Message: No bluetooth data found.
  Message: No logical block device data found.
  Message: No RAID data found.
  Local Storage: total: 4.57 TiB used: 78.09 GiB (1.7%)
  SMART Message: Unable to run smartctl. Root privileges required.
  ID-1: /dev/nvme0n1 maj-min: 259:0 vendor: Samsung model: SSD 960 EVO 500GB
    size: 465.76 GiB block-size: physical: 512 B logical: 512 B speed: 31.6 Gb/s
    lanes: 4 type: SSD serial: <filter> rev: 2B7QCXE7 temp: 35.9 C scheme: GPT
  ID-2: /dev/sda maj-min: 8:0 vendor: Samsung model: SSD 860 PRO 1TB
    size: 953.87 GiB block-size: physical: 512 B logical: 512 B speed: 6.0 Gb/s
    type: SSD serial: <filter> rev: 2B6Q scheme: MBR
  ID-3: /dev/sdb maj-min: 8:16 vendor: HGST (Hitachi) model: HDN724030ALE640
    size: 2.73 TiB block-size: physical: 4096 B logical: 512 B speed: 6.0 Gb/s
    type: HDD rpm: 7200 serial: <filter> rev: A5E0 scheme: GPT
  ID-4: /dev/sdc maj-min: 8:32 type: USB vendor: Samsung model: Portable SSD
    T5 size: 465.76 GiB block-size: physical: 512 B logical: 512 B type: SSD
    serial: <filter> scheme: MBR
  Message: No optical or floppy data found.
  ID-1: / raw-size: 88.61 GiB size: 86.66 GiB (97.80%) used: 27.66 GiB (31.9%)
    fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sdc1 maj-min: 8:33 label: N/A
    uuid: eb235aa7-d461-413d-800e-ea57385703fb
  ID-2: /boot raw-size: 200 MiB size: 188.2 MiB (94.09%) used: 62.1 MiB
    (33.0%) fs: ext3 dev: /dev/sdc3 maj-min: 8:35 label: N/A
    uuid: 26eda82e-b403-49b8-abca-202167417020
  ID-3: /home raw-size: 332.03 GiB size: 325.75 GiB (98.11%) used: 19.8 GiB
    (6.1%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sdc4 maj-min: 8:36 label: N/A
    uuid: ada4a6a2-bd0a-4652-b386-7c637bba7ee9
  ID-4: /media/temp raw-size: 63.48 GiB size: 62.18 GiB (97.96%) used: 30.57
    GiB (49.2%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sdb1 maj-min: 8:17 label: temp
    uuid: 1e81b7c2-3438-438a-b572-ff8a966a78e1
  Kernel: swappiness: 10 (default 60) cache-pressure: 100 (default)
  ID-1: swap-1 type: partition size: 2.93 GiB used: 0 KiB (0.0%)
    priority: -2 dev: /dev/sdc2 maj-min: 8:34 label: N/A
    uuid: a44dd3c4-f5f1-4587-8934-6f7413d28d4f
  ID-1: /dev/nvme0n1p1 maj-min: 259:1 size: 442.47 GiB fs: ntfs label: ssm
    uuid: AE7EDC0696B158FD
  ID-2: /dev/sda1 maj-min: 8:1 size: 50 MiB fs: ntfs
    label: System-reserviert uuid: B2286A122869D5BF
  ID-3: /dev/sda2 maj-min: 8:2 size: 293.16 GiB fs: ntfs label: win10
    uuid: 5E60C09860C077F3
  ID-4: /dev/sda3 maj-min: 8:3 size: 515 MiB fs: ntfs label: N/A
    uuid: 20E8D914E8D8E954
  ID-5: /dev/sda4 maj-min: 8:4 size: 585.94 GiB fs: ntfs label: games
    uuid: 165692E31D7ADAF2
  ID-6: /dev/sdb2 maj-min: 8:18 size: 1.57 TiB fs: <superuser required>
    label: N/A uuid: N/A
  ID-7: /dev/sdb3 maj-min: 8:19 size: 1.09 TiB fs: <superuser required>
    label: N/A uuid: N/A
  Hub-1: 1-0:1 info: Hi-speed hub with single TT ports: 16 rev: 2.0
    speed: 480 Mb/s chip-ID: 1d6b:0002 class-ID: 0900
  Device-1: 1-9:2 info: Endor AG ClubSportPedal type: HID
    driver: hid-generic,usbhid interfaces: 1 rev: 2.0 speed: 12 Mb/s
    power: 100mA chip-ID: 0eb7:183b class-ID: 0300
  Device-2: 1-13:3 info: A4Tech XL-730K / XL-750BK XL-755BK Mice
    type: Keyboard,Mouse driver: hid-generic,usbhid interfaces: 2 rev: 1.1
    speed: 12 Mb/s power: 100mA chip-ID: 09da:9090 class-ID: 0301
  Hub-2: 2-0:1 info: Super-speed hub ports: 10 rev: 3.0 speed: 5 Gb/s
    chip-ID: 1d6b:0003 class-ID: 0900
  Device-1: 2-5:2 info: Samsung Portable SSD T5 type: Mass Storage
    driver: uas interfaces: 1 rev: 3.1 speed: 5 Gb/s power: 896mA
    chip-ID: 04e8:61f5 class-ID: 0806 serial: <filter>
  Hub-3: 3-0:1 info: Hi-speed hub with single TT ports: 2 rev: 2.0
    speed: 480 Mb/s chip-ID: 1d6b:0002 class-ID: 0900
  Hub-4: 4-0:1 info: Super-speed hub ports: 4 rev: 3.1 speed: 10 Gb/s
    chip-ID: 1d6b:0003 class-ID: 0900
  Hub-5: 5-0:1 info: Hi-speed hub with single TT ports: 2 rev: 2.0
    speed: 480 Mb/s chip-ID: 1d6b:0002 class-ID: 0900
  Hub-6: 6-0:1 info: Super-speed hub ports: 2 rev: 3.1 speed: 10 Gb/s
    chip-ID: 1d6b:0003 class-ID: 0900
  System Temperatures: cpu: 37.0 C mobo: N/A gpu: nvidia temp: 39 C
  Fan Speeds (RPM): N/A gpu: nvidia fan: 25%
  Processes: 227 Uptime: 17m wakeups: 1 Init: systemd v: 251
  default: graphical tool: systemctl Compilers: gcc: 12.1.0 clang: 14.0.6
  Packages: 1422 pacman: 1417 lib: 413 flatpak: 5 Shell: Bash v: 5.1.16
  running-in: konsole inxi: 3.3.20

I have the same behavior, I’m on testing branch. So far I’ve not found any functional issues. I consider these errors as ‘not a problem’ and won’t worry about them.

1 Like

Im on stable release btw, I wonder if this errors related to Intel because my AMD System dont show any errors and its using the same Kernel and DE as this system.

1 Like

For reference my info:

  Kernel: 5.18.15-1-MANJARO arch: x86_64 
  Desktop: GNOME v: 42.3.1 tk: GTK v: 3.24.34 wm: gnome-shell dm: GDM
  Info: model: AMD Ryzen 5 3600 bits: 64 type: MT MCP arch: Zen 2 gen: 3
1 Like

I have the same errors (Intel CPU). Not noticed any strange behaviour in Firefox itself though.

1 Like

If messages are only happening when Firefox starts, it might help to go to Firefox about:support page and click Clear startup cache…

Yes, the errors showed up in the journal right after starting browser, im not even visiting a page.

I cleared startup cache and restarted my PC but the errors still there after starting firefox.

I have the same issue on all my installs (unstable and testing branches) and for the sake of me i could only relate to this

and was also mentioned in

But it should have been fixed by then with the latest updates. The thing is, i see it on unstable too.

It seems that, alt least on Gnome, when i run Wayland session instead of X11, that coredump does not take place. Will try to see if is the case on KDE Plasma, even tho for me was quite unpredictable and got random results every time.

On KDE Plasma and Gnome, both when using the X11 session the coredump takes place; when using the Wayland session, on both that coredump is not happening.
Stil no exact reason why is happening, but will investigate more.

Reading trough the Firefox - ArchWiki i found out that by removing the libva-vdpau-driver package from my install, rebooting the system and starting Firefox does not produce the crash anymore. I still get the:

$ firefox
[GFX1-]: glxtest: VA-API test failed: failed to initialise VAAPI connection.

when running it from terminal, but there is no more any coredump. Not observing any other issue, but will investigate more.


After removing the package Firefox does not produce the coredump entries in the log.

@Kobold does this solve the issue for you?

I didnt try it out, because its only a workaround… and maybe the package is required somewhere else… doesn’t it?

I still hope this issue gets fixed soon, from Mozilla or someone else :confused:

So far no issues to report on my side, I do have some weird stuff installed when using this machine to work from home, lots of AUR packages and dependencies, this is a slow clean up process so I’m not worried about removing packages.

Name                  : libva-vdpau-driver
Version               : 0.7.4-6
Description           : VDPAU backend for VA API
Depends On            : libgl libvdpau libx11
Optional Dependencies : --
Provides              : --
Replaces              : --
Conflicts With        : --

To me this looks like a package that is a optional, provides nothing and replaces nothing. My assumption is that the functionality in this package is moved somewhere else and that this package can be removed safely.


Both libva-vdpau-driver and lib32-libva-vdpau-driver were explicitly installed on my system. Can’t recall if I had done that or not. But uninstalling these made my Firefox boot coredump-free.

1 Like

I only had libva-vdpau-driver installed. I removed it and Firefox coredumps ceased

I reinstalled package to see if coredump issue returned, but only got this message when launching Firefox from terminal

[GFX1-]: glxtest: VA-API test failed: failed to initialise VAAPI connection.
Missing chrome or resource URL: resource://gre/modules/UpdateListener.jsm
Missing chrome or resource URL: resource://gre/modules/UpdateListener.sys.mjs

Even the new Firefox 105 release showed this coredump errors.

It is sad that i have to use a workaround for Firefox today (a browser which is always preinstalled in most Linux distribution), because Mozilla is to lazy to fix this errors, even after waiting 2 month. :zipper_mouth_face:

Coredumps have stopped here, solution provided by @bogdancovaciu works for me, @Jaypee & @nikgnomic , it might work for you, have you tried it?

There’s another core dump situation on Firefox with xdg-desktop-portal-kde.

1 Like

No because its not a real solution, its a workaround. And when i look at the newest Shotcut (Video Editor) version from a German PC Website… there is written, that Hardware AV1 Video Acceleration are Provided with VDPAU… so at the end it looks to me, that its a big trade off.

Source: https://www.computerbase.de/2022-09/shotcut-22-09-windows-macos-linux-videoeditor/

I also have 6 differend VDPAU drivers installed on my system.

I removed today the package and the errors no longer shows up (but after uninstall i get several warnings about optional depencies for VLC related to nvidia).

I hope i got no future problems.

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