Files can be transferred between computers on a network in a number of ways. So the answer to your question can be an number of things, and they’ll all be correct. That said, the FTP you mentioned is but one of the methods, albeit slightly older and definitely less secure than the newer ones. It was also mostly used to transfer files over the internet, like uploading a website and not on local networks.
I suspect what you’re looking for is somewhere in here:
The ftp protocol is a little bit dated, but can be used to transfer file form and to a different computer. But keep in mind the ftp protocol is based on a client-server architecture. This means you need some sort of ftp server software und be able to connect from your client to it.
There are different ftp servers software packages available to install, but they need to be configured.
See Category:FTP servers - ArchWiki
However, with other protocols like sftp, it might be easier to simply send a file form one to another system. See, SCP and SFTP - ArchWiki
I think that you need a simple tool.
Personally, I’m using since several years a simple tool which can help you to share folders, files even iso files. He is available on AUR and it is Lan-Share.
A nice gui However he is in English and not translated in another language.
It was nothing.
It’s a superb application which has only 3 faults: it is no longer developed, not translated into another language other than English and it is not automatically iconified when starting it. Afterwards yes. I’m quibbling but the Linux icon isn’t great for my taste.
The advantage is that as long as you are on the same network, it is astonishingly fast, including for video files and iso images.
For the moment it still works and I haven’t found an equivalent as well made and KISS.
And I know applications.