PinePhone Pro stuck at boot screen

On my PinePhone Pro I pressed the power button to turn the screen on: a distorted image appeared, then it rebooted. Now it boots but the GUI never starts. It stays like this forever:

What can I do?

You didn’t tell which version of the image you are using. Plasma Mobile, Phosh or something else. You can flash a new image on your microSD card and try to boot that: Manjaro Development Pinephone Images · GitHub

Sorry. It’s default pre-installed Plasma Mobile.
What should I do after booting an image from my microSD to fix the default installation?

First check if a new image even boots. Current supported and maintained is based on Phosh.

I managed to install Tow-Boot and booted Manjaro Phosh Beta 36 from a micro SD card.