No output device, input works poorly

After some recent updates I lost the ability to play sound through my laptop’s default speakers, the headphone output doesn’t work either. Only thanks to the external usb DAC am I able to hear anything, external usb microphone also works just fine.
With no DAC plugged there are no controls for the output at all. The default input is there, but it works much worse than before, it’s like the sensitivity was turned all the way up, so the noise is unbearable.
I tried reinstalling pipewire and pulseaudio, but to no avail.

inxi -Aa:

Audio:
  Device-1: Intel Cannon Lake PCH cAVS vendor: ASUSTeK driver: snd_hda_intel
    v: kernel alternate: snd_soc_skl,snd_sof_pci_intel_cnl bus-ID: 00:1f.3
    chip-ID: 8086:a348 class-ID: 0403
  Sound Server-1: ALSA v: k5.15.59-1-MANJARO running: yes
  Sound Server-2: PulseAudio v: 16.1 running: no
  Sound Server-3: PipeWire v: 0.3.56 running: yes

alsa-info.sh --upload:
http://alsa-project.org/db/?f=e2527c43b6c8083976fce9fe78a28710b50686e0

Can you post the output of alsamixer on console ?

The most recent kernel is version 5.15.60 for 5.15.xx.

You should consider updating system BIOS, it may have better support for onboard audio
X580GD - Support

ALSA data shows all outputs from onboard audio are muted [off]

!!-------Mixer controls for card PCH

Simple mixer control 'Master',0
 
  Mono: Playback 54 [73%] [-20.00dB] [off]

Simple mixer control 'Headphone',0

  Front Left: Playback 0 [0%] [-74.00dB] [off]
  Front Right: Playback 0 [0%] [-74.00dB] [off]

Simple mixer control 'Speaker',0

  Front Left: Playback 74 [100%] [0.00dB] [off]
  Front Right: Playback 74 [100%] [0.00dB] [off]

it’s like the sensitivity was turned all the way up, so the noise is unbearable.

Your suspicion is correct, Audio capture levels have been turned all the way up:

Simple mixer control 'Capture',0

  Front Left: Capture 80 [100%] [6.00dB] [on]
  Front Right: Capture 80 [100%] [6.00dB] [on]

Simple mixer control 'Internal Mic Boost',0

  Front Left: 3 [100%] [36.00dB]
  Front Right: 3 [100%] [36.00dB]

36dB total microphone boost of would be very noisy and unbearable

I suggest you use alsamixer to adjust playback and capture controls for HDA Intel PCH onboard audio

alsamixer --card=0 --view=All

Use and to select individual audio controls

and to adjust audio levels

and M to toggle outputs from muted [MM] to unmuted [OO]

When audio levels are adjusted to your liking, use this command to save settings

sudo alsactl store

Screenshots of alsamixer are not very informative. If you are need further help with ALSA settings, use this command to show settings in text format

amixer --card=0

So first I tried upgrading the kernel to 5.18, as I saw it helped someone in other post, but it didn’t work for me (downgrading didn’t do that either)
Then I followed @nikgnomic instructions and unmuted and adjusted audio levels, but the speakers and default headphone output still are not available

Here’s the ouput of amixer --card=0 after the adjustments:

Simple mixer control 'Master',0
  Capabilities: pvolume pvolume-joined pswitch pswitch-joined
  Playback channels: Mono
  Limits: Playback 0 - 74
  Mono: Playback 74 [100%] [0.00dB] [on]
Simple mixer control 'Headphone',0
  Capabilities: pvolume pswitch
  Playback channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Playback 0 - 74
  Mono:
  Front Left: Playback 74 [100%] [0.00dB] [on]
  Front Right: Playback 74 [100%] [0.00dB] [on]
Simple mixer control 'Speaker',0
  Capabilities: pvolume pswitch
  Playback channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Playback 0 - 74
  Mono:
  Front Left: Playback 74 [100%] [0.00dB] [on]
  Front Right: Playback 74 [100%] [0.00dB] [on]
Simple mixer control 'PCM',0
  Capabilities: pvolume
  Playback channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Playback 0 - 255
  Mono:
  Front Left: Playback 255 [100%] [0.00dB]
  Front Right: Playback 255 [100%] [0.00dB]
Simple mixer control 'Mic Boost',0
  Capabilities: volume
  Playback channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Capture channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: 0 - 3
  Front Left: 0 [0%] [0.00dB]
  Front Right: 0 [0%] [0.00dB]
Simple mixer control 'IEC958',0
  Capabilities: pswitch pswitch-joined
  Playback channels: Mono
  Mono: Playback [on]
Simple mixer control 'IEC958',1
  Capabilities: pswitch pswitch-joined
  Playback channels: Mono
  Mono: Playback [on]
Simple mixer control 'IEC958',2
  Capabilities: pswitch pswitch-joined
  Playback channels: Mono
  Mono: Playback [on]
Simple mixer control 'IEC958',3
  Capabilities: pswitch pswitch-joined
  Playback channels: Mono
  Mono: Playback [on]
Simple mixer control 'IEC958',4
  Capabilities: pswitch pswitch-joined
  Playback channels: Mono
  Mono: Playback [on]
Simple mixer control 'Capture',0
  Capabilities: cvolume cswitch
  Capture channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Capture 0 - 80
  Front Left: Capture 80 [100%] [6.00dB] [on]
  Front Right: Capture 80 [100%] [6.00dB] [on]
Simple mixer control 'Auto-Mute Mode',0
  Capabilities: enum
  Items: 'Disabled' 'Enabled'
  Item0: 'Disabled'
Simple mixer control 'Digital',0
  Capabilities: cvolume
  Capture channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Capture 0 - 120
  Front Left: Capture 60 [50%] [0.00dB]
  Front Right: Capture 60 [50%] [0.00dB]
Simple mixer control 'Internal Mic Boost',0
  Capabilities: volume
  Playback channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Capture channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: 0 - 3
  Front Left: 3 [100%] [36.00dB]
  Front Right: 3 [100%] [36.00dB]