What is the "encrypt system" button about in the installation screen?

Is this supposed to be full disk encryption? I’m coming from Windows and either VeraCrypt or Bitlocker both have a process bar running all the way to 100% until the drive is encrypted. I don’t see any encryption process after the installation?

Is the drive fully encrypted?
If not, how secure are my files compared to FDE (replacing SSD, physical access etc.)

  • an encrypted container is created on the partition
    (or the partitions reside inside that encrypted container)
  • the system is then installed into that encrypted container

when the system is booted, that encrypted container is “opened”
then the system can boot

… it doesn’t need a separate encryption process to encrypt an unencrypted system
like you mentioned
since the system is put into an already encrypted … container

with the current Calamares installer
it is indeed totally, fully encrypted
not even the /boot directory is left out

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