This is just a mini tutorial on how to write ISOs correctly to a USB stick.
Download the ISO and the checksum file
First verify the checksum:
$ sha1sum -c manjaro.iso.sha1
It should then print a line which says “OK”.
If it’s not okay, it might be a bad download, so download again.
Print out the checksum, we’ll need it later on:
$ sha1sum manjaro.iso
Plug in your USB stick
Check the device it got associated with:
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-id | grep usb
[...] usb-General_USB_Flash_Disk_0510410000000090-0:0 -> ../../sdb
Start the write process with dd:
$ sudo dd if=manjaro.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=1M oflag=sync status=progress
For old and slow USB2 sticks, you can use a lower
bsvalue like e.g. 128K.
You get a confirmation when the transfer has finished:
602976256 bytes (603 MB, 575 MiB) copied, 86,7218 s, 7,0 MB/s
Now you can check whether the file has been correctly copied to the stick:
sudo dd if=/dev/sdb iflag=count_bytes count=602976256 | sha1sum
countparameter to represent the number of bytes written, which you get from the confirmation above in point 7.
602976256 bytes (603 MB, 575 MiB) copied, 24,0766 s, 25,0 MB/s 823b4e4e2c734c6b4cf95b3f100b5c6397a252e2 -
Compare the checksum with the one you got in step 3, if they match, you’re good to go!
a. It’s recommended to also check the signature of the ISO with gpg.
That does not only verify the integrity, but also the authenticity.
b. Instead of writing to
/dev/sdX, you can also write to
/dev/disk/by-id/usb-xxx (see point 5).
This helps avoiding confusion especially if you have lots of devices.
EDIT 1: small corrections